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Table of contents
PREFACE
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-1.1
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-1.2
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-2.1
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-2.2
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-2.3
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-2.4
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-2.5
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-3.1
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-3.2
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-3.3
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-3.4
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-3.5
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-4.1
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-4.2
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-4.3
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-5.1
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-5.2
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-5.3
EROTIC SYMBOLISM-6
THE MECHANISM OF DETUMESCENCE-1.1
THE MECHANISM OF DETUMESCENCE-1.2
THE MECHANISM OF DETUMESCENCE-1.3
THE MECHANISM OF DETUMESCENCE-1.4
THE MECHANISM OF DETUMESCENCE-2.1
THE MECHANISM OF DETUMESCENCE-2.2
THE MECHANISM OF DETUMESCENCE-2.3
THE MECHANISM OF DETUMESCENCE-2.4
THE MECHANISM OF DETUMESCENCE-3.1
THE MECHANISM OF DETUMESCENCE-3.2
THE MECHANISM OF DETUMESCENCE-4.1
THE MECHANISM OF DETUMESCENCE-4.2
THE MECHANISM OF DETUMESCENCE-4.3
THE PSYCHIC STATE IN PREGNANCY-1
THE PSYCHIC STATE IN PREGNANCY-2
THE PSYCHIC STATE IN PREGNANCY-3
THE PSYCHIC STATE IN PREGNANCY-4
HISTORIES OF SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT HISTORY-1.1
HISTORIES OF SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT HISTORY-1.2
HISTORIES OF SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT HISTORY-2.1
HISTORIES OF SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT HISTORY-2.2
HISTORIES OF SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT HISTORY-3-4
HISTORIES OF SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT HISTORY-5.1
HISTORIES OF SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT HISTORY-5.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

exhibitionism seems, however, to be rare. 

 

While the manifestations of exhibitionism are substantially the same in 

all cases, there are many degrees and varieties of the condition. We may 

find among exhibitionists, as Garnier remarks, dementia, states of 

unconsciousness, epilepsy, general paralysis, alcoholism, but the most 

typical cases, he adds, if not indeed the cases to which the term properly 

belongs, are those in which it is an impulsive obsession. Krafft-Ebing[60] 

divides exhibitionists into four clinical groups: (1) acquired states of 

mental weakness, with cerebral or spinal disease clouding consciousness 

and at the same time causing impotence; (2) epileptics, in whom the act is 

an abnormal organic impulse performed in a state of imperfect 

consciousness; (3) a somewhat allied group of neurasthenic cases; (4) 

periodical impulsive cases with deep hereditary taint. This classification 

is not altogether satisfactory. Garnier's classification, placing the 

group of obsessional cases in the foreground and leaving the other more 

vaguely defined groups in the background, is probably better. I am 

inclined to consider that most of the cases fall into one or other of two 

mixed groups. The first class includes cases in which there is more or 

less congenital abnormality, but otherwise a fair or even complete degree 

of mental integrity; they are usually young adults, they are more or less 

precisely conscious of the end they wish to attain, and it is often only 

with a severe struggle that they yield to their impulses. In the second 

class the beginnings of mental or nervous disease have diminished the 

sensibility of the higher centers; the subjects are usually old men whose 

lives have been absolutely correct; they are often only vaguely aware of 

the nature of the satisfaction they are seeking, and frequently no 

struggle precedes the manifestation; such was the case of the overworked 

clergyman described by Hughes,[61] who, after much study, became morose 

and absent-minded, and committed acts of exhibitionism which he could not 

explain but made no attempt to deny; with rest and restorative treatment 

his health improved and the acts ceased. It is in the first class of cases 

alone that there is a developed sexual perversion. In the cases of the 

second class there is a more or less definite sexual intention, but it is 

only just conscious, and the emergence of the impulse is due not to its 

strength but to the weakness, temporary or permanent, of the higher 

inhibiting centers. 

 

Epileptic cases, with loss of consciousness during the act, can only be 

regarded as presenting a pseudo-exhibitionism. They should be excluded 

altogether. It is undoubtedly true that many cases of real or apparent 

exhibitionism occur in epileptics.[62] We must not, however, too hastily 

conclude that because these acts occur in epileptics they are necessarily 

unconscious acts. Epilepsy frequently occurs on a basis of hereditary 

degeneration, and the exhibitionism may be, and not infrequently is, a 

stigma of the degeneracy and not an indication of the occurrence of a 

minor epileptic fit. When the act of pseudo-exhibitionism is truly 

epileptic, it will usually have no psychic sexual content, and it will 

certainly be liable to occur under all sorts of circumstances, when the 


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