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tempted Eve is always popularly imagined to be an apple. One may perhaps
refer in this connection to the fact that at Rome and elsewhere the
testicles have been called apples. I may add that we find a curious proof
of the recognition of the feminine love of apples in an old Portuguese
ballad, "Donna Guimar," in which a damsel puts on armour and goes to the
wars; her sex is suspected and as a test, she is taken into an orchard,
but Donna Guimar is too wary to fall into the trap, and turning away from
the apples plucks a citron.
 A. Pinard, Art. "Grossesse," _Dictionnaire Encyclopedique des
Sciences Medicales_, p. 138. On the subject of violent, criminal and
abnormal impulses during pregnancy, see Cumston, "Pregnancy and Crime,"
_American Journal Obstetrics_, December, 1903.
 See especially Ploss and Bartels, _Das Weib_, vol. i, Chapter XXXI.
Ballantyne in his work on the pathology of the foetus adds Loango negroes,
the Eskimo and the ancient Japanese.
 In 1731 Schurig, in his _Syllepsilogia_, devoted more than a hundred
pages (cap. IX) to summarizing a vast number of curious cases of maternal
impressions leading to birth-marks of all kinds.
 J.W. Ballantyne has written an excellent history of the doctrine of
maternal impressions, reprinted in his _Manual of Antenatal Pathology: The
Embryo_, 1904, Chapter IX; he gives a bibliography of 381 items. In
Germany the history of the question has been written by Dr. Iwan Bloch
(under the pseudonym of Gerhard von Welsenburg), _Das Versehen der
Frauen_, 1899. Cf., in French, G. Variot, "Origine des Prejuges Populaires
sur les Envies," _Bulletin Societe d'Anthropologie_, Paris, June 18, 1891.
Variot rejects the doctrine absolutely, Bloch accepts it, Ballantyne
 J.G. Kiernan has shown how many of the alleged cases are negatived
by the failure to take this fact into consideration. (_Journal of American
Medical Association_, December 9, 1899.)
 J. Clifton Edgar, _The Practice of Obstetrics_, second edition,
1904, p. 296. In an important discussion of the question at the American
Gynaecological Society in 1886, introduced by Fordyce Barker, various
eminent gynaecologists declared in favor of the doctrine, more or less
cautiously. (_Transactions of the American Gynaecological Society_, vol.
xi, 1886, pp. 152-196.) Gould and Pyle, bringing forward some of the data
on the question (_Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine_, pp. 81, _et
seq._) state that the reality of the influence of maternal impressions
seems fully established. On the other side, see G.W. Cook, _American
Journal of Obstetrics_, September, 1889, and H.F. Lewis, ib., July, 1899.
 _Transactions Edinburgh Obstetrical Society_, vol. xvii, 1892.
 J.W. Ballantyne, _Manual of Antenatal Pathology: The Embryo_, p. 45.
 W.C. Dabney, "Maternal Impressions," Keating's _Cyclopaedia of
Diseases of Children_, vol. i, 1889, pp. 191-216.
 Fere, _Sensation et Mouvement_, Chapter XIV, "Sur la Psychologie du
 J. Thomson, "Defective Co-ordination in Utero," _British Medical
Journal_, September 6, 1902.
 H. Campbell, _Nervous Organization of Man and Woman_, p. 206; cf.
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